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People's Republic of China(PRC the People's Republic of China ( PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. (2017) Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. As of 2018, China had the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$13.5 trillion (90 trillion Yuan).

1,397.0 bn. (2017)[1]



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

January 01. New Year's Day (1 day)

February * Chinese New Year / Spring Festival (3 days)

April 05. Qingming Festival /Tomb Sweeping (1 day)

May 01. Labor Day / May Day (1 day)

June ** The Dragon Boat Festival (1 day)

September *** The Mid-Autumn Festival ( 1 day)

October 01.-03. National Holidays

* (1st, 2nd and 3rd days of 1st Lunisolar month)

** (5th day of 5th Lunisolar month)

*** (15th day of 8th Lunisolar month)

In all these holidays, if the holiday lands on a weekend, the days will be reimbursed after the weekend. Generally, if there is a three-day or four-day (if Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day) holiday, the government will declare it to be a seven-day or eight-day holiday. However, citizens are required to work during a nearby weekend. Businesses and schools would then treat the affected Saturdays and Sundays as the weekdays that the weekend has been swapped with. Schedules are released late in the year prior and might change during the year.

Buddhists (6%), Muslims (4.2%), Christians (0.2%), Other religions (0.1%), Folk religions (20.1%), No confession (71.2% )

74,318.00 (RMB¥, gross, Yearly wage, Employees in big towns, 2017) [1]



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

USD 13,457.00 bn. (2018) [1]


[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

GDP compostion by sectors (2016, %) [1]

(2016, %)[2]: Mining / Industry 33.3; Trading/Restaurants/Hotels 11.3; Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing Industry 8.9; Construction 6.7; Transport/Logistic/Communication 4.5; Other 35.3



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

[2] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

(2017, in% of the total import) [1]: Electronics 22.2; Raw Materials (except fuels) 14,2; Chemical Products 10.5; Mineral Oil 8.9; Machinery 7.0; Electrical Engineering 4.9; Motor Vehicles and Parts 4.3; Measuring and control engineering 4,2; Food 3.0; Non-ferrous metals 2.5; Other 18.3



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

(2017, in% of the total export) [1]: Electronics 26.2; Textiles / Clothings 11.8; Electrical Engineering 8.6; Machinery 8.5 ; Chemical Products 6.2; Metallic goods 3.8; Motor Vehicles and Parts 3.3; Food 2.8; Furniture and Parts 2.6; Iron and Steel 2.5; Other 23.7



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

(2017, share in %)[1]

Republic of Korea (9.6)

Japan (9.0)

Taiwan (8.4)

United States of America (8.4)

Federal Republic of Germany (5.3)

Commonwealth of Australia (5.2)

Brazil (3.2)

Other countries (50.9)



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

(2017, share in %)[1]

United States of America (19.0)

Hongkong (12.3)

Japan (6.1)

Republic of Korea (4.5)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam (3.2)

Federal Republic of Germany (3.1)

Republic of India (3.0)

Other countries (48.8)



[1] GTAI „WIRTSCHAFTSDATEN KOMPAKT China“ November 2018

Product Export China to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (USD Thousand)[1] Import China from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (USD Thousand)[2]
All Products 2803608,94 279185,37
Capital goods 695699,27 3071,14
Consumer goods 1366266 14490,34
Intermediate goods 696804,37 254125,75
Raw materials 43546,43 7251,88
Chemicals 131261,75 253470,47
Food Products 38658,98 42,6
Footwear 131992,68 8,78
Hides and Skins 33974,76 1844,47
Mach and Elec 741199,22 3048,5
Metals 263414,13 5188,33
Minerals 795,71 82,57
Miscellaneous 238313,96 259,72
Plastic or Rubber 157553,7 880,02
Stone and Glass 121456,26 2,43
Textiles and Clothing 776203,9 14226,78
Transportation 40610,96 68,68
Vegetable 26212,15 26,55
Wood 98159,91 35,46

Bilateral Investment Treaties between China and the Hashemite Kingdom of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan werde signed in November 2001. [1]

Production in China 2017 (Selection, Unit 10,000 t) [1]

Manufacture of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin not available in official statistics
Output of Industrial Products, Traditional Chinesebr/>Medicine/td> 83.61
Output of Industrial Products, Chemical Medicines/td> 355.44

2. Import of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin to China 2017 (Unit USD)[2]

Import of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin
HS Code 3304000000
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin (other than medicaments), including sunscreen or suntan preparations; manicure or pedicure preparations 5,820,185,545

The main import partner in the field of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin is Korea, followed by France, Japan, the USA and the United Kingdom.

3. Export of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin from China 2017 (Unit USD)[3]

Export sof make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin
HS Code 3304000000
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin (other than medicaments), including sunscreen or suntan preparations; manicure or pedicure preparations 2,032,496,768

The main partner for Chines exports of make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin is the USA, followed by Hongkong, the United Kingdom, Singapore and Japan.

More information regarding the Chinese market for cosmetics find here . [4]

4. Cosmetic and beauty fairs in China

An overview of all trade fairs taking place in China can be found on the website of the AUMA - Association of the German Trade Fair Industry under the link https://www.auma.de/en. The AUMA service also includes the provision of the organisator and project team account information. The selection of cosmetic and beauty fairs in China is exemplary and by no means exhaustive.

PCHi

Shanghai / China Personal Care & Homecare Ingredients, annually)

https://www.pchi-china.com/en/

BIOFACH CHINA

Shanghai / China (International Organic Trade Fair, annually)

http://www.biofachchina.com/en/home.php

CHINA BEAUTY EXPO

Shanghai / China (International Beauty & Cosmetics Expo, annually)

http://www.chinabeautyexpo.com

FIBO CHINA

Shanghai / China (Sporting Goods, Cosmetics, Personal Hygiene, Wellness, Medical Engineering, Health, Pharmaceuticals, Care; annually)

http://www.fibo-china.cn/en/

Legal understanding in China

To this day, in the People's Republic of China (PRC), law is not considered the best way to order a society. However, China has, in the course of joining the WTO, committed to the WTO principle of "transparency and predictability". Thus, not only have many international treaties been implemented into national law, but also the practice of "internal" regulations seems to be less and less on the agenda. The legal situation has improved considerably in many areas - especially in industrial property rights - and to a large extent already meets international standards. The legal enforcement remains problematic; especially at the local level. Judicial independence is not given in many cases, as judges are paid locally and must take local interests into account. Nevertheless, the efforts of the Chinese central government to create an effective legal system are noteworthy.

Purchase law and choice of law

China has joined the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) signed April 11,1980. Thus, purchase contracts between China and the other member states are automatically subject to the UN Sales Convention, unless the parties have expressly waived the use of the UN Sales Convention. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is not a CISG member. In this respect, the Chinese Contract Law (KL) of 1999 and the Chinese „Law on the Laws Applicable to Foreign-related Civil Relations“ (IPR Law) apply here. It covers the areas property law, law of obligations (including tort law) as well as intellectual property. However, the IPR Law does not regulate international procedural issues such as international jurisdiction or the enforcement of foreign judgments. The law is supplemented by interpretative guidelines of the Supreme People's Court (SPC) on the content and limits of a choice of law. Thus, a choice of law is excluded if mandatory Chinese law applies. This is explicitly the case under joint venture contracts or the acquisition of a stake in a Chinese company.

Chinese law is also mandatory if the facts affect China's public interests. Therefore, according to the SPC, questions of protection of workers' rights and interests, public health and safety, and circumstances related to competition and antitrust law are addressed exclusively under Chinese law.

Contracts subject to Chinese law are governed by the 1999 Contract Law (KL). Since a reference to the rights of Parties is not necessary, any right can be chosen. An appropriate choice of law should be recorded in writing. In principle, the contracting parties are free to determine the form, language and dispute resolution modalities and to make a choice of law when dealing with foreign issues.

Retention of title

Retention of title is permissible (not normally provided for in Chinese law) if it is agreed that ownership will not be transferred until the buyer has paid the price or fulfilled other obligations. Thus, regardless which law has been agreed upon, a retention of title can be successfully invoked in international treaties.

Foreign exchange/payment transaction

The Chinese currency renminbi yuan (RMB) is still not fully convertible. There is a gradual internationalization of the RMB with direct conversion into US dollars (US $), Malaysian ringgit, Japanese yen, Australian and New Zealand dollars, the British pound and in euros. As a result, transactions can be invoiced and paid in euros without having to make a detour via a third currency.

It is still prohibited to pay in foreign currency or even to bill within China. Payments abroad can be made in RMB and are approval-free for imports. However, the involved Chinese banks have to ensure that the goods were actually imported. To do this, each company has to open a so-called "holding bank account", where all foreign exchange receipts are frozen until the actual delivery.

Means of security

The usual and recommended payment and payment guarantee is the letter of credit, to which Chinese banks usually offer only a "silent" confirmation, which means that the letters of credit usually remain payable in China. The best protection of one's own position is obtaining information about the Chinese business partner. The agreement of a simple retention of title is possible, but does not protect against a bona fide third-party acquisition of the matter and is rarely feasible. An extended retention of title does not exist in Chinese law.

Other mean of security include mortgage, pledge, right of retention and the guarantee. The agreement of a security mortgage that is independent of the underlying transaction is not permitted. However, it is possible to contractually loosen the accessibility between the mortgage and the underlying claim. Mortgages can also be created on various movable products and capital goods, but not on ownership of land.

Warranty

The Contract Law contains statements on material and legal defects. The seller shall be liable, at buyer's option, for rectification, new production, new delivery, rescission of the contract or diminution if he does not deliver the goods in accordance with the agreed or customary quality standards.

Furthermore, the seller must provide the buyer the property free of third party rights to the goods and give him the necessary documents. If the buyer can prove that third parties can assert rights to the goods, he may withhold the purchase price accordingly if the seller does not provide suitable collateral. If there is a defect of title, the buyer is entitled to withhold the purchase price.

The buyer has a duty to inspect and to give notice with a basic period of two years. After that the goods are considered approved. If the seller knew or had to know that the goods were not in accordance with the agreement, the buyer is not bound by the notification periods.

Manufacturer liability

Traders and manufacturers are subject to the manufacturer's liability according to the product quality law, which is supplemented by the law on torts. The scope of protection of the law on tort and product quality includes private consumers as well as commercial customers of the goods.

The manufacturer as well as the seller of a product regularly bear liability independent of negligence for the personal or property damage caused by a product defect. For the purposes of victim protection, joint and several liability often occurs. In the case of pure material damage, exemption from liability for slight and medium negligence are generally permissible. According to the law of torts, it is possible in certain cases to award punitive damages in addition to compensatory damages.

Under the Consumer Protection Act, revised in 2014, there are new consumer privacy regulations, a nationwide recall system for defective products, and a burden of proof for the product's defect-free nature, which is the responsibility of the seller for the first six months after purchase.

Trademark law

Trademark rights have been subject to the comprehensive reform of the Trademark Law as well as the Implementation Guidelines since May 2014 and have been adapted to international standards. The registration of the trademark right takes place at the Trademark Office. The period of protection is ten years from registration with extension option, which can be done electronically. From the point of view of material compliance, the new law should better protect against so-called "Bad Faith Applications". This is the (partly professional operated) registration of a foreign brand that is not yet protected in China. The Trademark Law introduces the multi-class system similar to the trademark application of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Prosecution

China's court system differs strongly from German or other Western court systems. There are people's courts at local, middle and higher levels as well as the Supreme Court. Legal disputes are difficult to enforce and are recommended only as a last resort. Most of the procedures end as a settlement. The enforcement of foreign court decisions in China is almost impossible in practice. A new development since June 2018 is the China International Commercial Court (CICC), which sets up the Supreme People's Court to decide on international trade cases involving a litigation value over RMB 300 million.

Enforcement of foreign court decisions

The Chinese Civil Procedure Law provides a legal basis for the enforcement of foreign court decisions, but so far very few cases of successful enforcement of foreign court judgments are known.

Chinese court judgments are enforced by the court of first instance upon request. Unlike many other countries, the procedure is primarily a bending method. Assets are seized or sealed. Only then does the judgment debtor have the opportunity to fulfill the enforcement order. If he/she neglects to do this, the assets are utilized. In practice, enforcement, especially when foreign companies are creditors, can be cumbersome.

Legal advice and representation

Foreign parties do not require lawyers. Foreign lawyers who do not have a Chinese lawyer's license and business license can not provide formal legal representation in court proceedings. This also applies to employed Chinese lawyers from foreign law firms. Foreign parties must therefore be represented by local lawyers from a Chinese law firm.

Mediation

The most widely used procedure for dispute settlement is that of "mediation": both parties to the dispute attempt to reach a mutually acceptable result in a friendly manner by informal means. In China, there are arbitration panels at all levels of society that deal with dispute settlement of family law through to civil law issues of compensation or credit. Nearly 9/10 of China's internal disputes are settled by mediation before such arbitration panels. However, in the case of contracts with foreign participation, the willingness to pursue such a settlement is lower and is currently only present in less than 30% of the disputes. Nevertheless, any business disagreement should first consider the friendly-constructive conversation with the Chinese side. It makes sense to put oneself in the position of the Chinese partner as far as possible and to offer compromise solutions.

In addition, however, the involvement of a Chinese arbitration panel without legal force (see above) is only possible for foreign companies if both parties are of good will toward another and there is still a trust-based relationship ("business relationship with a future"). In China there is also the possibility to get justice through international arbitral tribunals. Since September 1995 China has had the Arbitration Law of the PR China in force, which establishes the establishment of arbitration tribunals, the conditions for being appointed as arbitrator, and the substantive and procedural rules. China ratified the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards on 2 December 1986, subject to reciprocity and limitation of its scope to contractual and non-contractual commercial law, and was incorporated into the Hague Convention on the Service of Judicial Documents Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters on 01 January 1992.

Pros and Cons of arbitration

Pro: Fast, high expertise by accredited foreign experts, independence, efficient. Better enforceability.

Cons: Expensive, no further instance possible, must be provided in writing by both parties at the conclusion of the contract.

The chance of enforcing an arbitration ruling on international arbitration is much higher than in the case of "ordinary legal action". The business agreement may specify arbitral institutions of the PRC or, for example, France, Switzerland or Sweden. The right that should be used is also freely selectable. In China, the CIETAC (China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, based in Beijing) is available as an Arbitration Institution with a neutral reputation, interpreters are organized, the procedure is written in a binding manner and foreign experts are accredited as arbitrators. In addition to the CIETAC, the CMAC (China Maritime Arbitration Commission) is worth mentioning, which deals with maritime arbitration disputes.

All hints given here are taken from publicly available sources. Among others, the sources used were

https://www.pfalz.ihk24.de/international/Greater_China/China/China_-_Wirtschaftsrecht/Handelsrecht_und_Vertragsgestaltung/1286426

and “Recht kompakt China” (GTAI 2018). It is expressly pointed out that all information given in the legal matters section is not legally binding information. These are general recommendations. Before concluding contracts, a lawyer should always be called in.

Harmonised System [1]

The Harmonised System or 'HS' (Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System) is a nomenclature developed by the World Customs Organisation (WCO) which comprises about 5 000 commodity groups, organised by Sections, Chapters (2 digit), Headings (4 digits) and Sub-headings (6 digits). The logic of the products classification relies on a hierarchical structure. In order to facilitate a uniform interpretation, the HS is supported by implementation rules and explanatory notes.

It is an important tool in foreign trade, as it allows the products to be exported to be accurately classified and specified according to internationally accepted definitions and standards. This classification makes it easy to determine the requirements applicable to the product in the destination country.

HS classification in the PRC

China joined the HS Harmonized System on January 1, 1992, at present, China is using 10 digits HS code. From August 1, 2018, the China Customs Commodity HS Code has been changed from the original 10-digit HS code to the new 13-digit HS code (CIQ Code); the first 8-digit is the Commodity HS code of "Import and Export Tariff of the People's Republic of China" ; 9, 10 digit are customs supervisory additional numbers, and 11-13 are additional numbers for inspection and quarantine.

64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles (HS Chapter)
6403 Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (HS Heading)
640391 covering the ankle (HS Subheading)
64039105 Made on a base or platform of wood, not having an inner sole (CN Code)
6403910510 Handmade (Taric code)
6403910590 Other (Taric code)

Before goods imported into China, before applying for China Customs declaration, the most important first step is goods HS classification.[1] [2]

A good tool to get the information you need to export to China is the website http://www.transcustoms.com , which offers all the information you need to a certain extent free of charge and in English.

Under the link China HS Code Directory tree lookup [3] there is the possibility to have the entire HS catalog displayed and to pick out the matching number manually. It is easier to enter a keyword at the button “HS Code classification” and all HS positions containing the keyword are displayed. Then the suitable product must be selected and you have the possibility to get information concerning the corresponding product: [4]

HS Code Qualification (for China)

By pressing the HS Code button , all 13-digit CIQ codes belonging to the selected 10-digit source code appear.

It appears Customs Classification Examples with the respective specifications according to the Commodity HS code of "Import and Export Tariff of the People's Republic of China".

The Customs Classification Examples are in Chinese, here must be decided with the importer, which is correct.



[1] The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, also known as the Harmonized System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally-standardized system of names and numbers to classify traded products. It came into effect in 1988 and has since been developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO) (formerly the Customs Co-operation Council), an independent intergovernmental organization based in Brussels, Belgium, with over 200 member countries.

CFDA certificate

For finished cosmetics, companies who plan to place cosmetics on Chinese market must apply for and obtain hygiene license or record-keeping certificate from the China Food & Drug Administration(CFDA). Foreign companies shall appoint a Chinese responsible agent to deal with registration and obtain such certificate. Manufacturers shall also register a new cosmetic ingredient prior to using it for cosmetics production.

CFDA certificate for Cosmetic Products [1]

Cosmetic products are divided into two categories: non-special use cosmetics and special use cosmetics. Non-special use cosmetics include hair care, nail care, skin care, perfumes, and makeup. Special use cosmetics include namely products for hair growth, hair dye, hair perm, hair removal, breast shaping, fitness, deodorizing, spot removal, whitening and sun block.

Non-special use cosmetics made abroad require a record-keeping certificate and special use cosmetics require a hygiene license, both issued by CFDA to abide by the cosmetics regulations in China.

1. Appointing a Chinese responsible agent

An overseas company must appoint a Chinese capable agent to apply to the CFDA license in a written Power of Attorney. Indeed, the company can’t register its cosmetic products directly. The Chinese responsible agent can be whether a Chinese subsidiary company, a distributor or a third party (a consulting firm for example). The Chinese capable agent is only responsible for the product registration, not for product safety and their name will not appear on any product label.

A foreign manufacturer can only appoint one Chinese capable agent, but one Chinese responsible agent can be appointed by different overseas manufacturers to apply for CFDA license.

2. Application of User Name and Password

To get access to CFDA’s online registration system and register cosmetic products, the Chinese responsible agent has to apply for a username and password. This procedure requires a notarized appointment letter and the business license of the agent. This step should take approximately one month.

3. Product formula

It is advised to have the product formula reviewed before submitting registrations to CFDA. All the details of the product formula, including INCI name, standard Chinese name, concentration and function of each ingredient should be provided to CFDA for registration. The product will not be approved by CFDA if it contains banned ingredients or if it does not meet the requirements of restrictive conditions in Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics. Technical Safety Standard for Cosmetics will replace Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics from December 1, 2016. If the product contains a new cosmetic ingredient not registered in the Inventory of Existing Cosmetic Ingredients in China [2] , the new element will also need CFDA’s approval.

4. Original product package

The original product package contains product name, full ingredient list, claiming and company information of manufacturer.

Claiming is a susceptible issue of the package: it is forbidden to use absolute and exaggerated words, and the product must not pretend to have therapeutic effect according to Guidelines of Cosmetics Nomenclature. Here are a few examples of prohibited words: top-level, anti-bacterial, stem cells, growth factor. Therefore, it is highly recommended to review the product package before submitting registrations to CFDA.

5. Testing requirements

Even if the cosmetic products have been tested abroad, they must be tested again in CFDA-designated laboratories in China. For all cosmetics, hygiene safety tests are mandatory. 21 laboratories are authorized by CFDA to perform hygiene safety tests that consist of physio-chemical, microbiological and toxicological studies, carried out in animals. For special cosmetic use, human safety tests are also required, and six laboratories are authorized to conduct this type of tests. Additional tests are needed if a cosmetic product contains risk substances.

6. Registration dossier

For the imported non-special use cosmetics, the documents below are required for registration:

- Application form for the cosmetic product to be imported

- Chinese product name and nomenclature

- Product formula

- Product quality and safety control file

- Original product packaging including labeling information and product information sheet

- Testing report and relevant data from inspection organization certified by CFDA

- Safety assessment report of cosmetics containing potential risk substances

- Stamped copies of power of attorney and business license of Chinese responsible agent

- Statement from manufacturer guaranteeing that material used meet the requirements of BSE-free regions

- Certificate of free sale at production country (region) or country (region) of origin

- Brief description and diagram of production process

- Technical requirements for cosmetic products in text

Other relevant information that can support the application

In addition to the documents of this list, more documents are needed to register special use cosmetics. For hair growth, breast shaping and fitness cosmetics, efficacy ingredients and proof of efficacy are required.

7. CFDA review

CFDA conducts a 2-step review: first a format review or completeness check, then a technical review. The format review should take five working days, and the technical review takes three months, although there is no fixed time to complete the technical review.

When the application is approved, CFDA issues a certificate that will also be requested for customs clearance. The certificate number must be displayed on the Chinese label of the cosmetic products.

The whole procedure should take 6 to 8 months to register imported non-special use cosmetics and 9 to 14 months for special use cosmetics.

Latest change of cosmetic import regulation in Shanghai

Noticeably, there is a significant adjustment of cosmetics import regulations in Shanghai recently. Around the middle of January 2017, China Food and Drug Administration and State Quality Supervision Bureau issued a joint announcement saying a pilot scheme of non-special use cosmetics registration management is about to be implemented in Shanghai Pudong New District. More specifically, from 1st March 2017 to 21 st December 2018, register records system will take the place of the previous approval management style so long as the foreign cosmetics goods are imported through Pudong New District Port and the person liable in China is registered in this particular region. The cosmetics import volume in Shanghai takes up 30.4% of the total amount of the entire country. This policy is expected to boost the cosmetic industry in Shanghai further.

After applying the simplified registration process, the relevant department can issue administrative permission within 5 days, which greatly shortened the entry time for the foreign brands and enables Chinese consumers to try out the latest international cosmetics products as soon as possible. As a result, the price of international cosmetic brands might decline to the same level of those sold in Hongkong.

This new regulation has come into effect since 12th May 2017.

Labelling

The "Product Quality Law of the PRC" in force since September 1, 1993 also contains marking and packaging provisions. Accordingly, the following documents are required for retail articles:

- Certificate of manufacturer internal product quality control

- Product name and name and address of the manufacturer in Chinese

- Main ingredients, quality category and other specifications, as far as product features and use require

it

- Production date, best-before date and expiration date for products that must be used within a certain

period of time

- Warning notice in Chinese as well as transport and storage instructions in Chinese for dangerous

products

The regulations for cosmetics labels are even more detailed. The applicable national standard for cosmetic products labelling is GB 5296.3-2008. Cosmetic labels, including claims, are checked during the process of pre-market product registration and they are also checked by the CIQ when the products arrive in Chinese ports. Failing to place compliant labels on the products when exporting cosmetics to China may result in product rejection or in the products being destroyed at the port.

Product labels have to be written in Chinese . Companies can either design special labels with the aim of being compliant with the rules of the Chinese cosmetics legislation or they can use their original packaging with China compliant over-labels.

The following information has to appear on the labels:

- Product name

- Name and address of the manufacturer

- Net content

- List of ingredients, which have to be written according to their Chinese INCI names, in descending

order of concentration, at least for ingredients with a concentration above 1%

- Shelf life and production date

- Manufacturer’s license, product standard or administrative approval code that is received when the

product is successfully registered

- Safety marks, any possible precautions for use

- Country of origin of imported products

- Name and address of the distributor in China for imported cosmetics

- Instructions for use and storage conditions if inadequate storage conditions will impact product safety.

Claims made on the cosmetic product labels have to be true and have to be in line with the Chinese definition of cosmetic products. Exaggerated claims regarding the performance or efficiency of the products, their composition, etc., are not allowed, as is also the case for any therapeutic claims, medical claims or comparisons that denigrate competitor products. Further, claims such as hypoallergenic, dermatologically tested or 100% natural will be challenged by the CFDA/SAMR expert panel. [1]

More information can be found under this link .[2]

Packaging

The Decree of the State Council of the People's Republic of China no. 416 from September 2004[3] declares on this topic among other things:

The origin of packing and packaging materials and containers presented with the import and export goods therein shall be disregarded in determining the origin of such goods, provided that these packing and packaging materials and containers are classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China; the origin of these packing and packaging materials and containers shall not be separately determined, and the origin of such goods shall be the origin of these packing and packaging materials and containers.

The origin of packing and packaging materials and containers presented with the import and export goods therein shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations, provided that these packing and packaging materials and containers are not classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China.

Technical Safety Standards for Cosmetics (TSSC 2015) [4] declare on this topic among other things:

The packaging materials that have direct contact with the cosmetic product should be safe in use, should not have a chemical reaction with the cosmetic products, and should not contain or release the toxic substances that may create harms to human.

Cosmetic regulations in China are supervised by 2 main competent authorities: State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) and the independent Drug Administration Bureau called National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) [1], which is under the governance of SAMR. Furthermore, NMPA consists of 9 subordinate departments, including Cosmetic Safety Supervision department. At provincial level and under NMPA, there are Medical Products Administrations (MPAs), which are in charge of filing of domestic non-special use cosmetics and issuance of cosmetics manufacturers’ production license.

The current regulatory system in China is founded on the Regulations concerning the Hygiene Supervision over Cosmetics from 1989. There are multiple laws that have to be followed and taken into account in China, but the most important is the Technical Safety Standard for Cosmetics 2015 which replaced the Hygiene Standard for Cosmetics 2007. [2]

This topic is treated as follows, among other things, in the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Origin of China on the Origin of China No. 416 from September 2004. [1].

„ Article 2 These Regulations are applicable to the origin determination of import and export goods in applying such non-preferential trade measures as most-favored-nation treatment, anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard measures, administration of origin markings, national quantitative restrictions or tariff quotas, and in undertaking such activities as government procurement or trade statistics as well…

Article 3 A country (region) shall be determined as the origin of the goods if these goods have been wholly obtained in such country (region); when more than one country (region) is concerned in the production of the goods, the country (region) where the last substantial transformation has been carried out shall be determined as the origin of these goods.

Article 4 For purposes of Article 3 of these Regulations, the goods that have been wholly obtained in a country (region) refer to:

(1) live animals born and raised in the said country (region);

(2) animals captured, fished and gathered in the wild of the said country (region);

(3) products obtained from live animals of the said country (region) without further processing;

(4) plants and plant products harvested in the said country (region);

(5) minerals excavated in the said country (region);

(6) naturally occurring substances obtained in the said country (region), not included in Items (1) to (5) of this Article;

(7) waste and scrap derived from producing in the said country (region) and fit only for disposal or recovery as raw materials;

(8) articles collected in the said country (region) that are not capable of being restored or repaired, or parts or raw materials recovered from such articles;

(9) products of sea fishing and other products taken from the sea outside the territorial waters of the said country by the vessels entitled to fly its flag;

(10) products processed on board the factory ships entitled to fly the flag of the said country exclusively from the products referred to in Item (9) of this Article;

(11) products taken from the seabed or subsoil beneath the seabed outside the territorial waters of the said country, provided that the country has the exclusive rights to exploit such seabed or subsoil; and

(12) goods produced in the said country (region) exclusively from the products referred to in Items (1) to (11) of this Article.”

More detailed Information can be found under this link . [2]

Proofs of origin for Jordan companies:

This document is available at the Amman Chamber of Commerce.

Registered Member (Establishment/Company) at the ACC with a capital of Five Thousand JD and more: Fees will be (1) one per (1000) thousand of the Export Invoice total value, up to a maximum of Fifty JD, and a minimum of Four JD.

Registered Member (Establishment/Company) at the ACC with a capital less than Five Thousand JD: Fees will be (0.5) half point per (1000) thousand of the Export Invoice total value, up to a maximum of Twenty Five JD, and a minimum of Two JD.

3. Individual (Not Registered) at the ACC: Fees will be (1) one per (1000) thousand of the Export Invoice total value, up to a maximum of Fifty JD, and a minimum of Four JD. More information is available at

this link. [3]

The Decree of the State Council of the People's Republic of China no. 416 from September 2004[1] declares on this topic among other things:

Article 5 In determining whether the goods are wholly obtained in a country (region), the following minimal operations or processes shall not be taken into account:

(1) operations or processes to ensure preservation of the goods for the purpose of transport or storage; (2) operations or processes to facilitate shipment of the goods; and

(3) operations or processes to package the goods for sale.

Article 7 The origin of the energy, plant and equipment, or machines and tools used in the production of the goods, and that of the materials which do not remain in the goods or form part of the goods, shall be disregarded in determining the origin of such goods.

Article 8 The origin of packing and packaging materials and containers presented with the import and export goods therein shall be disregarded in determining the origin of such goods, provided that these packing and packaging materials and containers are classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China; the origin of these packing and packaging materials and containers shall not be separately determined, and the origin of such goods shall be the origin of these packing and packaging materials and containers.

The origin of packing and packaging materials and containers presented with the import and export goods therein shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations, provided that these packing and packaging materials and containers are not classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 9 The origin of accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials presented with the import and export goods therewith and classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China shall be disregarded in determining the origin of such goods, provided that these accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials are presented with such goods therewith and correspond, in kind and number, to the normal equipment thereof; the origin of these accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials shall not be separately determined, and the origin of such goods shall be the origin of these accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials.

The origin of accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials presented with the import and export goods therewith shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations, provided that these accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional materials do not correspond, in kind and number, to the normal equipment thereof even though they are classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China, or they are not classified with such goods under the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China.

All commodities importing into china, need pay the 3 types tariffs:

I. Customs duties
II. Value-added tax
III. Consumption tax

The valuation method is CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), which means that the import duty and taxes payable are calculated on the complete shipping value, which includes the cost of the imported goods.

These tariffs rate depend on the different types of commodities, countries, years and import way.

I. China Customs duties for imported commodities :

China Customs duties include import and export duties, with nearly 9000 items taxed, according to China’s 2017 Customs Tariff Implementation Plan (“2017 china tariff schedule ”). Customs duties are computed either on an ad valorem basis or quantity basis.

China Duty rates on import goods consist of:
1. General duty rates;
2. Most-favored-nation duty (MFN) rates;
3. Conventional duty rates;
4. Special preferential duty rates;
5. Tariff rate quota (TRQ) duty rates; and,
6. Temporary duty rates

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is included in the list of Chinas must-favored-nations[1]. When importing goods from The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the calculation of China Customs duties for imported commodities is based on the most-favored-nation duty (MFN) rates.

1. General duty rates

General duty rates are applied to imported goods originating from countries or territories that are not covered in any agreements or treaties, or of unknown places of origin.

2. MFN duty rates

MFN (most-favored-nations) rates are the most commonly adopted import duty rates. They are much lower than the general rates which apply to non-MFN nations. They apply to the following goods:
• Goods imported to China from WTO member countries;
• Goods originating from countries or territories which have concluded bilateral trade agreements containing provisions on MFN treatment with China; and,
• Goods that originated from China.

3. Conventional duty rates and special preferential duty rates

Conventional duty rates are applied to imported goods that originate from countries or territories that have entered into regional trade agreements containing preferential provisions on duty rates with China.

4. Special preferential duty rates

Special preferential duty rates are applied to imported goods originating from countries or territories with trade agreements containing special preferential duty provisions with China. They are generally lower than MFN rates and conventional duty rates.

5. Tariff rate quota duty rates

Under tariff rate quota (TRQ) schemes, goods imported within the quota are subject to a lower tariff rate, and goods imported beyond the quota are subject to higher tariff rates. For example, the TRQ rate for importing wheat within the quota is one percent – substantially lower than the MFN duty rate of 65% and the general duty rate of 130%.

6. Temporary duty rates

China also sets temporary duty rates for certain imported goods in order to boost imports and meet domestic demand. In 2016, China implemented temporary tax rates, which are even lower than the MFN tariffs on more than 787 imported commodities, including on diapers (2%), sunglasses (6%), kaolin (1%), and skincare products (2%).


II. Value-added Tax for imported goods

All goods imported into China are subject to the nation’s value-added tax (VAT) of either 13 percent or 17 percent. The 13 percent tax is available for certain goods that fall mainly within the categories of agricultural and utility items, while the 17 percent tax applies to other goods subject to the VAT tax.

The input VAT (Sales x VAT rate), which is the VAT amount paid when purchasing products or taxable services, can often be used for deduction against output VAT, which is the VAT amount charged to the buyer by the seller of a good or taxable service.

III. Consumption Tax for imported goods

China’s consumption tax (CT) is imposed on companies and organizations who manufacture and import taxable products, process taxable products under consignment, or sell taxable products.
Imported products taxable under China’s consumption tax include those that are harmful to one’s health like tobacco or alcohol, luxury goods like jewelry and cosmetics, and high-end products such as passenger cars and motorcycles.

For imported goods, consumption tax varies depending on the type of product being brought into the country. Calculating consumption tax can be done by using either the ad valorem or quantity-based method.

IV. Cross-Border e-Commerce import tax:

There are two circumstances can apply Cross-Border e-Commerce import:
1. goods purchased from merchants registered in China's cross-border e-commerce network, or
2. goods purchased from any overseas merchant AND shipped by a courier company that is able to present three required documents (commercial invoice, airway bill, and proof of payment), and who can take legal responsibility for the import

Personal imports of these types, with a customs value (CIF value) up to CNY 5,000, and where the accumulated transaction value has not surpassed the personal annual limit of CNY 26,000, are exempt from import duty, and subject to 70% of the applicable VAT and Consumption Tax rate.

Imports which exceed these limits will be subject to all duties and taxes. NB: Only products in the positive list (i.e. a list of products approved by China's Ministry of Finance) can be imported under this regime.

Determination of Import Tariffs, according to the exporting country

(For a general overview of Tariffs and Tax applicable to imports from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, see this link .[2])

Again, reference is made to the above-mentioned overview [3] on the website http://www.transcustoms.com .

By pressing the button "Duty import" the Chinese Tariff and Tax on selected HS code will appear.

1. China Import Tariff Rates

The import tariffs are differentiated according to:

General Duty for Non Most-favored Nation (Non-MFN)

MFN Duty for Most-favored Nation (MFN, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is MFN)

FTA Conventional Duty for Free Trade Area Nations with China

LDCs Preferential Tariff for Low Developed Countries.

The import consumption tax and the import VAT, which must be paid in each case, apply uniformly to all four country groups.

2. China Import Conventional Tariff Rates for Free Trade Agreement Countries

3. Cross-border E-commerce Import Tax Rates

4. China Export Tariff Rates

Determination of General Trade Import Landed Costs

Again, reference is made to the above-mentioned overview [4] on the website http://www.transcustoms.com . By pressing the button "Tariff" the Chinese Tariff and Tax on selected HS code will appear:

1. Table: Name and HS code of the product

2. Applicable Tariff and Tax Table. In general, the MFN - duty will be 5% and is in the

3. Table "Input Country of Origin, Applicable Duty Rate and Goods CIF Value (USD)" already completed. If the MFN duty in table 3 differs from the given number, use the correct value from Table 2 manually. Furthermore, fill in the goods CIF Value in the corresponding field. After entering all the data in Table 3, press the blue button "Calculate Import Tariff" below and in the

4. Table "Goods Import to China Tariff and Taxes Calculation Results (USD)" displays the total tariff.

Please note: This is total Tariff that need to be paid to china customs, but not include the CIQ inspection & quarantine charge and Port Dock cost.

Also offered is the calculation of applicable fees when choosing the type of sale e-commerce. Then the E-Commerce Landed Cost Calculator has to be chosen. (As already mentioned : If Goods CIF value exceed ?5,000 RMB (About $700 USD),then can't be imported via Cross-border e-Commerce way, need via the General trade way )

Customs declaration (list of required documents)

Again, reference is made to the above-mentioned overview [1] on the website http://www.transcustoms.com . By pressing the button "Supervise" requirements on selected HS code will appear.

1. In the table "China HS code XXX CIQ Inspection and Quarantine Requirements: M / N"

will be apparent if the product requirements in terms of

Foreign Facility Register

Exporter/Sales Filing

Products Pre-market Approval

Chinese Labeling Norm Review

Quarantine License

must meet.

2. The individual documents of the Customs Declaration Basic Documentations are listed. There are notes who are responsible for creating the documents and if they are necessary for the product.

Chinese Customs Declaration Basic Documentations

Authorization letter for customs declaration

Entry goods customs declaration form

Contract

Commercial invoice

L/C=letter of credit

Beneficiary's certificate/statement

Insurance policy

Bill of landing

Deliver order

Packing list

Certificate of origin

Preferential Certificate of Origin

Others Documentation

3. The individual documents of the Import Commodity CIQ Inspection and Quarantine Basic Documentations are listed. There are notes who are responsible for creating the documents and if they are necessary for the product.

Import Commodity CIQ Inspection and Quarantine Basic Documentations

Authorization letter for Commodity inspection

Import Commodity inspection form

Contract

Commercial invoice

L/C=letter of credit

Bill of landing

Deliver order

Packing list

Certificate of origin

Certificate of analysis

Quality Warranty Letter

Plant products Quarantine certificate

Animal products Quarantine certificate

Veterinary certificate

Sanitary/Health certificate

Disinfection certificate

Fumigation certificate

Weight/Quantity certificate

Others Documentation

1. A basic requirement for an export success - in addition to a suitable and demanded product as well as good sales or trading partners - is an honest and self-critical assessment of your company. Ask yourself these questions below and discuss them with your business partners and family. We tried to answer some questions at least partially. But first and foremost, your knowledge and initiative is important.

Is the product suitable for export?

Is there enough time available for company management and employees for foreign activities?

Does the company have enough employees for additional activities?

Is the know-how of the employees sufficient?

Are your language skills and / the language skills or of the employees sufficient?

Is there enough capacity to meet an increasing demand if the start was good?

Do other business areas (e.g. product development, other marketing activities) need to be limited to save time and money?

Do you need to build up additional capacities (e.g. production, logistics, accounting, sales, marketing)?

2. Choosing the right target market is also very important. The fact that you are convinced of your product does not automatically mean that it is also the potential customers of the chosen target market.

Is the new foreign market different from the markets you know?

Which specific customer groups do you want to address?

Which (other) needs do the customers have?

How do your products cover these needs?

What prices are paid for comparable products?

How do you want to fit into this price structure?

Are special labeling requirements for your product to be observed?

What financial options do the customers have you want to address?

Which distribution channels you can use to reach these customers?

Which competitors are there in the target market?

Are you familiar with the customs (payment methods, traditional delivery and insurance conditions, cultural features) of the target market?

Is your target market really the right one?

3. Sales abroad - at least in the start-up phase - will be unsuccessful without reliable partners in the target market.

How do you find customers or business partners in the target market?

How do you plan your customer and business partner relationship management?

How can you distribute your products successfully in the target market?

What should you pay attention to during business talks?

4. It's always about the money. Before you make money with the export, you first have to spend money. Check your budget, to make an honest decision: can you even afford the export?

What financial resources are available to you?

Which budget do you plan for your export activities (a budget set in advance makes the step abroad financially calculable even in the case of a failure)?

Are you liquid enough to finance the foreign engagement?

Can you use or finance unused capacity in the event of a sluggish course (e.g. in the start-up phase)?

Do you need to translate, print and distribute promotional materials?

Do you have to pay for consultants and interpreters?

5. No risk, no fun, as it is jokingly called, but a risk assessment is indispensable.

Are there any financial sponsorship programs or special export promotion programs for your products?

Are there any insurance policies that reduce the risk of exports?

How will export affect the financial situation of your company?

Some (in any case incomplete) answers

Is the new foreign market different from the markets you know? How do you find customers or business partners in the target market?

There are different possibilities.

Attend international fairs in your country that are relevant to your product - you probably do that anyway.

Go to Chinese exhibitors and get in touch.

Check which trade fairs take place in PRC that are relevant to your product - for example, via the AUMA.[1] Consider whether it is worth visiting. You should not immediately think about presenting yourself as an exhibitor (these are unnecessary costs in the first step). See such trade shows as an opportunity to engage with potential distributors and get to know potential competitors. Incidentally, you can also easily get an idea about the offer and prices in the relevant stores of the target market.

Good sources of information are also bilateral chambers in your country or other foreign business organizations. If there is no chamber representation of the PRC in your country, look for contact with the Chinese embassy in your country. As a rule, there is an economic officer in every embassy who will gladly advise you. Apart from that, contacts to the embassy of the destination country are always worthwhile...

German and other foreign chambers of commerce also offer targeted address research and support in contacting them. Consider whether you should accept bids to help you get in touch, even though they are usually chargeable. Let's be honest: It makes a difference whether a company representative unknown until then by the potential distribution partner or an official institution of the target market announces itself.

Maintain contacts to companies from the PRC, located in your country - also via chambers and trade associations. Even if they have nothing to do with your product at first glance: Relationships only harm those who have none. You get first-hand information about the PRC market and who knows, maybe the person you are talking to will have interesting contacts in your industry.

How do you plan your customer and business partner relationship management?

Making contacts is relatively easy; maintaining business contacts over a longer period of time is much more difficult. But doing business with an existing client is much easier and cheaper than constantly recruiting. The following tips make it easier to maintain contacts:

Information: Inform your customers about changes - new contact persons or direct dial numbers, new products and locations, new distribution channels or export successes. It also encourages customers to share similar information with you. So you stay up to date. Also inform foreign customers about changed funding opportunities or new export regulations. You show that you do not just want to do current business: In the sense of a holistic customer relationship you have the well-being of the customer in mind.

Personal: Do not hesitate to collect personal information about your most important business partners: birthdays, family, hobbies, etc. This gives you the opportunity to stay in contact outside the business relationship - on a very personal level.

Invitations: Invite customers over and over again when there is something new or when you are presenting at a trade fair or similar.

Cultural features: If you have foreign customers, it is important to know the customs of the exporting country more closely. When are holidays? Which gifts are usual? Take advantage of these opportunities to be remembered as an attentive business partner.

Spontaneity: Do not be afraid to call "spontaneously" if, for example, an important intermediate step has been reached in order processing. Your customer will be grateful to you, because he always feels sufficiently informed.

Business environment: Maintain contacts not only with your actual business partners, but also with your Business environment. Secretary, assistant or important employees are decisive multipliers for future orders.

Don’t expect English to be spoken during your business meetings in China. It is best to hire a professional interpreter or to ask for one to be provided. You should also know that some Chinese partners may understand English, but will choose to say nothing. Don’t speak ill of anybody during the meeting.

Don’t be late. Meetings always begin on time in China. Punctuality is tremendously important for Chinese business people. Being late is considered rude.

Don’t o verdress. When meeting Chinese business people, you should avoid overly fashionable clothes. Conservative, simple, unpretentious, modest clothing is more suitable. Men should wear sport coats and ties or open-necked shirts in the summer; women should wear dresses or pant suits for business and avoid heavy make-up and opulent jewellery.

When greeting Chinese business partners, you must always address the highest ranking first. Therefore, before the meeting, find out about their hierarchical position in the company.

If you are unsure, you can show it calmly at the first meeting. This is a signal to your counterpart that you do not want to make mistakes. You will be helped immediately by showing the highest rank.

Shake hands upon meeting. Chinese people may nod or bow instead of shaking hands, but shaking hands has become increasingly common. So it is very likely that you will be offered a hand in greeting. Grab the hand of your counterpart, but do not press it! Instead, place your hand very lightly in that of your counterpart. A firm handshake, which should demonstrate decisiveness and strength of character for us, is feared by many Chinese people.

When introduced to a Chinese group, they may greet you with applause. You should applaud in return.

Address the Chinese partners by their professional titles and last name. For instance, if the CEO of the company you want to do business with is named Pa Fing, note that Pa is the last name and Fing is the given name. You should address Pa Fing as Director Pa. If you don’t know the professional title, Mr., Mrs. and Miss and family name are accepted. Only use the given name if specifically asked.

Exchange a modest gift with all your business colleagues at the first meeting. Not giving a gift could start a business meeting off on the wrong foot. Always give a gift to everyone present or don’t give gifts at all. The gifts should be presented with both hands. You should offer the gift a second time if they refuse it; they are just being polite.

During the first conversation you first exchange general information. These include questions about marital status, whether and how many children you have, or whether your parents are still alive.

Do not be surprised if you are asked relatively quickly how old you are. In societies where hierarchy defines all social relationships, this is often an important piece of information to establish the rank of the other person.

An essential part of the greeting is the exchange of business cards. Business cards are the most important medium for clarifying the hierarchical position in a company. Chinese people emphasize the status of their company and their employees through high quality paper and representative design.

Business cards of Chinese business partners contain hierarchical information such as "President", "General Manager" or "Head of ..."

Your business cards should be printed in Chinese on one side and English on the other. Pay attention to the style of writing. Simplified Chinese characters are to be used. Choose clear hierarchical terms such as "General Manager Sales", "Head of Technical Support" or "Director Quality Management". Choose a high quality paper.

After handing over, carefully study the business card of your Chinese business partner. It would be insulting to insert the business card unread. Stow them later unobtrusively in the breast or jacket pocket or in a business card holder. Do not note anything on the business card of your business partner, at least not as long as he can see that. This would probably be considered as defamatory.

Don’t interrupt any period of silence at a business meeting. Let the host have the first word after a longer silence. Don’t expect easy negotiations – not even after signing a contract. Negotiations may last for more than ten days and signing a contract does not necessarily mean that they will end. When they change their minds, the Chinese partner may become increasingly inflexible, forcing you to break off negotiations. According to Chinese understanding, contracts are interim results in a mutually beneficial business relationship. Contracts are declarations of intent. Renegotiations are seen as a mutual adaptation to change, not a breach of contract.

Invitation to the restaurant

If you are unsure which chair to sit on the (round) table, just wait. It will be assigned to you a place. Do not choose the place yourself.

The seating arrangement at the table reflects the hierarchical order of the group: The hierarchically highest person sits at the round table directly opposite the entrance. Right and left follow the next hierarchy levels.

Wait until the host prompts everyone to start eating. Also, make sure that the host usually starts eating first.

Business or working lunches are unknown in China. Chinese partner while eating want to get to know the people behind the business partner. When talking to business partners, you do not talk about business or about work. Choose cheerful and pleasant topics, such as hobbies.

Longer negotiations in China often place high demands on the drinking resistance of their business partners. Chinese people sometimes even consume large amounts of alcohol at lunch.

You can refuse the consumption of alcoholic beverages without any problems with a reference to religious matters or health. Your business partners will accept that.

After dinner, Chinese partners leave the restaurant quite abruptly. Pay attention to the signal of the highest rank, who gives the signal to leave.

Are there any financial sponsorship programs or special export promotion programs for your products?

Here you should talk with banks from the PRC, if they are represented in your country and of course with your house bank. Chambers and business associations are other good contacts. It is important to have contact with international development cooperation organizations. These can provide information on ongoing projects in your industry and related funding opportunities. Use the discussions with the international development cooperation organizations to obtain information on other organizations, such as foreign foundations, where further information on potential export subsidies is available.

China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Textiles

http://www.ccct.org.cn/EN/default.aspx

China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Light industrial Products & Arts-Crafts

http://www.cccla.org.cn/English/englishHome.aspx

China Chamber of Commerce for I&E of Metals, Minerals and Chemical Products

http://en.cccmc.org.cn/

China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Foodstuffs, Native Produce and Animal By-Products

http://en.cccfna.org.cn/

China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products

http://www.cccme.org.cn/index.aspx

China Chamber of Commerce of Medicines & Health Products Importers & Exporters

http://en.cccmhpie.org.cn/

China International Contractors Association

http://www.chinca.org/EN

China Association of Enterprises with Foreign Investment

http://caefi2.mofcom.gov.cn/

China Association of International Engineering Consulting

http://www.cnaec.org.cn/

China International Freight Forwarders Association

http://www.cifa.org.cn/cifa_En/

China Council for International Investment Promotion

http://en.ccpit.org/info/index.html

China Association of Trade in Services

http://www.catis.org.cn/

China Trade Society

http://gmxh.mofcom.gov.cn/

China Council for the promotion of international trade

http://en.ccpit.org/info/index.html

China Institut for WTO Studies

http://ciwto.uibe.edu.cn/2014en/

China International Council for the Promotion of Multinational Corporation

http://www.cicpmc.org/en/index.asp